Up, a survey station on the north moraine of of Storglaciären in northern Sweden. Below, a survey prism staked into moving ice that will have a slightly different position each day. Right, a survey prism firmly attached to bedrock – a “fixed point” that can be used for relative comparison to the moving point on the ice.

This has almost nothing directly to do with GEOG 271, except that we will collect data and turn them into maps. Angles and distances are the primary starting point in both cases.

All of these things can accomplished much faster with scanning instruments, such as the ground-based LIDAR shown in use below. We didn’t have one back when I was doing the glacier work.